13 – Fiber Laser Engraving Metal: Mining for Gold (33:36)

The Fiber Laser Learning Lab Series with Russ Sadler

In this Series, Lotus Laser have lent Russ a MOPA 20 watt fiber laser to “play with”. Although Russ has a moderate understanding of laser technology (his words) and how constant power glass tube systems work, pulsing fiber laser marking machines are shrouded in a deeper mystery than the glass tube machines. In this session, Russ investigates how he can achieve a high contrast, consistent Gold mark when Fiber Laser Engraving Metal.

They have been designed for high speed marking and the technology has been well tried and proven. There are limited “tricks” that the pulsing laser technology can perform. You enter predefined parameters for each marking “trick” you wish the machine to deliver , then stand back in amazement. Most correspondents tell Russ that they have bought their machine direct from China and received a machine and EZCAD software, preloaded with a few default parameters. No other instructions beyond the EZCAD manual are forthcoming.

Russ states “I am neither a teacher or expert in this field so you join me in my learning adventure with the warning that I have a simple but inquisitive mind and will probably make mistakes on my way to discovering the truth. I WILL oversimplify and maybe distort the scientific detail in my quest to build a simple picture of why and how this technology works. I am not trying to reverse engineer anything, just to break through the seemingly impenetrable ‘techno cotton wool’ that surrounds this amazing piece of science.”


To be completed soon.

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Fiber laser engraving metal - various achievable colours
Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours

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MOPA 20 watt fiber laser


Fiber laser engraving metal - the colour gold is found at lower temperatures.
Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – The Colour Gold is Found at Lower Temperatures.

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Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours

Gold coloured laser marking under the microscope
Gold Coloured Laser Marking Under The Microscope

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0:00well welcome to another fiber laser learning lab we’re going to continue our pursuit of colors today and I say colors

0:08because I really probably mean color I mean we’ve got a lot to learn because as

0:18we can see from this color here depending on how I move that in the light I get a completely different color

0:25and I think the last time we established why that might be happening and that’s

0:31because of the surface texture and the way in which the light is reflecting off that surface texture now that’s I

0:39suppose what we would naturally call an iridescent color alright but when we

0:46look at some of these other colors here okay there’s a slight change as we move

0:52around in the light but they’re relatively stable you know these sort of

0:57lovely little sort of a pale J green and pale blue and then we move to the the

1:04most the lilacs and then the Pink’s then these crimson colors and finally here

1:10we’ve got gold which is a pretty stable color even if we catch those in the

1:16light right you can see that there’s they’ve got iridescent features as well right but gold is one of those colors

1:25which is produced I believe by low-temperature heating of the surface

1:31to manipulate the surface texture here we’ve got our old favorite oxide marks

1:36and as you can see the outer or lower temperature range of colors is the

1:43yellow color and the blue is the much higher temperature range in the middle

1:48okay so I’m claiming that the gold is old to do with low temperature because

1:54this is where we’re finding it on the low temperature region around about 170 to 200 degrees C something like that so

2:02I could really care for what we discovered last time we found that this heating to cooling ratio here is very

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

2:11important we could get 5,000 pulses per millimeter if we ran at 100 millimeters a second

2:17but we were getting only 250 pulses per millimeter if we were running it two

2:23thousand millimeters a second so the amount hate that we are putting into the product was directly proportional to the

2:29speed the overlap between the dots was one of the control features that we

2:35realized we could play with last time because this is heating and cooling effect meant the the less distance you

2:42traveled between each pulse the more heating you could put into a single spot and the hotter you could make that spot

2:49now the second feature that we found was that if we could overlap these lines we

2:56could increase that heating effect as well although we previously talked about

3:01all sorts of other ways of controlling power on this machine using higher or lower frequency above and below the

3:09optimum peak power frequency although focuses there as a feature for us to

3:14play with it’s not the most reliable and accurate form of control there are three

3:20features that will allow us to play with the heating effect on a particular spot

3:26one of them is speed as we’ve just mentioned here one of them is line

3:34spacing let’s call it pitch and the

3:40third one is percent power now these are

3:47all predictable and easily controllable features so from what I learnt last time

3:53I hope I’ve got sufficient mastery of these parameters that I might be able to

4:01go hunting for gold just one color let’s not get too

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

4:09ambitious we need to walk before we can run so during today’s session i hope

4:15that i should be able to prove to myself what i believed all the way along that there is no single formula for gold gold

4:23will depend on different mixes of these parameters there will be all sorts of

4:29parameter mixers that will give me gold now some will be dark gold some will be

4:34light gold if I start raising the temperature of the surface too much I’m very very confident I should be getting

4:40into this red zone here which is the next temperature zone up from gold and

4:46therefore if I mix red with gold I should probably finish up with a coppery color so when I got to a coppery

4:54color I know that I’ve pushed the boundary too far and what we saw last time was that the color that’s actually

5:00on the surface of the material is not necessarily the color that we perceive with our eyes it is a mix of all those

5:08colors that are on the surface so there is a very complex relationship between these features here what happens on the

5:17surface of the material and what we perceive with our eye now whether that

5:23is actually controllable and predictable is what we’re going to try and find out

5:28with our hunt for colors over the next few sessions my starting point is gold because that’s probably the easiest of

5:35the colors to work with we will then start probably increasing things like

5:40the pulse width to see if we can find more colors as we increase the

5:46temperature let’s start off with our four nanosecond pulse at 500 kilohertz

5:52I’m going to go for 50% power to start with and a speed which it 1500 is sort

5:59of okay that should give us a reasonable gold from previous experience

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

6:06okay now forget back the black clump there I’m reusing an old plate here so there’s our initial gold I’ve got

6:14another little lump there which I shall stay around as well but after that everything gets clear if I increase the speed

6:20I should be reducing the number of pulses per millimeter which will make it

6:27run cooler it might drop off the bottom of the scale or it might make a slightly

6:33paler gold let’s try 2000 and leave everything else

6:39the same but it’s still a very pale greeny gold so that prediction was

6:44correct so we’ve got a bit cool now so how do we increase the power

6:51we’ll leave the speed the same at 2000 and this time we want to increase the

6:56power so we can increase the power by probably lowering the pitch of it so

7:03from say 10 microns let’s go down to 8 microns so for number 3 we’re going to

7:08do 8 microns that was 10 microns just for clarity we’ve gone back to our a

7:15slightly darker gold it’s not quite as green as that one so we go another

7:21couple of microns and make it a little bit hotter you can see we’ve gone too much because we’ve got a hint of red in

7:27there now see it’s a slightly movi color so we’ve actually put too much heat into

7:32the gold now and we’ve driven it back towards red so when we look at the hand of the microscope will probably find

7:38we’ve got quite a lot of red sitting under there we will go and check these under the microscope so let’s go back

7:44and we’ll try 7 microns and yes we’ve

7:49got our gold back again it’s a slightly darker but gold it’s um it’s it’s not

7:56copper colored it’s actually quite a nice colored gold and it’s not dissimilar to the one that we had at the

8:03top here let’s move on from this one and see what we can change here to still

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

8:08keep gold so if I drop back down to 1500

8:14which we haven’t had before with 7 microns

8:21what will that do for us we’re putting more heat into the job therefore it probably might send us

8:28towards the ring again we might get a copper color who knows Wow so 1500 with a 7 micron

8:37pitch there’s but just putting too much heat into it because it’s turning it blue what else have we got we can play

8:44with the power so we’ll reduce the power to 30% and sure enough we’ve got a bit

8:49of a gold back again to pile gold maybe 20% let’s try 30 percent well we’ve got so

8:57little power on there now that we can’t even see it so it is a very very very

9:04pale gold in this light but it’s it’s almost invisible so we need to put the

9:11power back up so we could decrease the pitch to get the power back up so we take that down to six or five microns

9:18let’s go down to five microns it’s darker but we’ve overdone the power

9:23decrease I think so we’ve either got to decrease the speed to get the power back

9:28up why don’t we try that instead of 1,500 let’s go down to a thousand that

9:37was 20% hasn’t really given us a great deal of advantage we haven’t got our

9:43gold back it’s it’s goldish but it’s extremely faint in the background so

9:49let’s gradually creep up on the power again so go up to 30% see if we can get

9:55our gold back we’re almost into a blue here the same as we were here so the

10:03biggest difference between most of these colors is this pitch I’ve closed the

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

10:09picture so let’s change from 30% power five

10:17microns let’s go back up to seven microns so I haven’t done that before I buy 37 now I’ve done a 57 but not a 37

10:27and we’re down a thousand millimeters a second now whereas we were two thousand

10:32here when we were doing seven before

10:41and yes of beginning to get our gold back more spacing let’s try eight

10:47microns yeah we’ve still got our gold it’s it’s

10:56not bad it’s a little bit lighter let’s try now I might promise

11:02I might crawl the still works they’re

11:07all pretty similar we’ll go back to ten microns they’re still gold I think

11:19you’ll see they’re all much of a muchness those Gold’s there it’s getting a little bit pale

11:25but then again look at the difference ten microns at a thousand millimeters a

11:33second and ten millimeter and ten microns at fifteen hundred or even ten

11:39microns at two thousand look so here’s ten microns at two thousand slightly

11:46blue and then we’ve got ten microns at a thousand so that’s a huge range in which

11:53we’ve got a sort of a Goldy color I mean for to build us that 10 microns that at

11:59two thousand is one of the brighter Gold’s it is a nice bright gold these have got a slightly duller hue to them

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

12:06that one is definitely a nice although in this light it looks slightly green when you catch it in the light that

12:12aren’t seeing it most of the time that looks like the brightest gold of the lot so if I put the power up we’re probably

12:21going to force it towards a darker color again but let’s try that shall we let’s

12:27go ten a thousand which is hot ten which

12:33is cool because we’ve opened the spacing up and now we’ll put some power into it

12:38as well so let’s go from 30% to 40%

12:43it’s got a slightly blue cast to it we

12:49won’t know until we look at under the microscope what the colors are within that gold surface so we push it up a

12:57little bit more we’ll go out to 50% and

13:03then we shall have a comparison between 50% as a thousand and fifty percent at

13:101,500 and 2,000 and yet now we’ve done it we’ve pushed it over and we’ve gone

13:16to blue so we’ve gone too hot now 50% at

13:23a thousand it’s too hot we could leave it at 50% and we can increase the

13:30picture gain to say 12 microns that should cool it down so now we’re calling

13:40it down it’s no longer a bright blue we’re getting back towards more like one of these colors here so we could

13:47probably go a little bit wider on the spacing say 14 microns so now we’re bringing our gold back into play again

13:55by calling it down opening up the spacing can I not the spacing a bit more

14:0216 microns the answer is yes I can and

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

14:07it’s becoming an even better gold so we’ve gone from a blue to a slightly

14:13blue hue that gold air looks almost as good as number three or number one a

14:19convenient point to stop maybe and take a look at these first set of results now oK we’ve got all these other Gold’s in

14:25between slightly different colors but the two that seem to match for these b3 sorry a3 and b10

14:33now this may actually be more significant than I thought when I first

14:38picked it up in the previous session and dismissed it so b10 is done at a thousand millimeters a second with 50%

14:45power and 16 micron pitch a3 is two

14:53thousand millimeters a second with 50% but this time with an 8 micron pitch let

15:01me just remind you of that little picture which I talked about in the

15:09previous session if we look at 83 we’ve got 125 lines in a millimeter and

15:14we’ve got 250 pulses in a millimeter that’s a total number of pulses of 30

15:211250 and if we check the same thing for b10 we find that we’ve got 62 and a half

15:28lines per millimeter with 500 pulses per

15:33millimeter which again comes out to the same number of pulses per square millimeter so this might be worth

15:39investigating just a little bit further to see if this is just just a coincident set of data because it could well be

15:47that the there is a relationship between the lines per millimeter and the pulses

15:54per millimeter so taking that to a conclusion I wonder what happens if we

15:59decide to put in 32 microns that’s mm that’s really pushing it

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

16:07because the beam is supposed to be 60 to 65 microns that means we’ve basically

16:13got around about three lines three and a half lines overlapping here maybe we’ll

16:18go to 20 and we’ll see what happens at 20 microns that will give us three lines of overlap it means we’re going to get

16:2550 lines per millimeter and 50 lines per millimeter divided into three one two

16:32five Oh gives us 625 pulses per millimeter and then when I take a look

16:39at my chart here 625 pulses per millimeter as a speed of 800 millimeters

16:47a second so that defines for us 800

16:53millimeters a second with the 20 micron spicy let’s test that should we well I

17:02would actually say that that and that and that you can’t see in this light but

17:12they certainly all look the same what else can we predict I think if I

17:17stretched this much further I should be in trouble we could try 25 that gives us

17:24a running speed of about 650 millimetres a second still leaving everything else

17:32the same well that’s still a perfect match we might be on to something here

17:3810 microns well that looks like another

17:49success big difference in the settings no difference in the color the maximum

17:56speed we can go to is 2,000 so let’s

18:01leave mm 50% and work out what the micron spacing should be it’s going to

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

18:07be 8 because we’ve done it already we did it for number 3 so so we’ve gone

18:14from 852 mm 20 microns to 8 microns we

18:23will do it again just so that we’ve got it in comparison and there it is again

18:28four in a row all exactly the same 800 650 1600 mm 20 microns 25 microns 10 and

18:388 phenomenal change of parameters but all arriving at the same result so we go

18:44to repeat these four results here but with 100% power rather than 50% power

18:50normally when you throw a hundred percent power at something you get the

18:57sparkly crinkly surface especially with these small posters where you tend to

19:02dig in quite a lot I’m not sure that we’re going to get too much color change

19:08I am moderately confident that these are all going to be sparkly gold sparkly yes

19:18just a lighter shade yes still a gold I

19:25would say erring towards the silver but

19:31definitely got a gold here in there when we look at that carefully we may well find it there’s some blue in there but

19:38we’ll carry on and we’ll see how had the others match up to that particular platen it’s still a light gold very

19:46light now it’s a similar color to the one beside it but when you turn them to

19:54the light they’ve got different reflective characteristics let’s go for

20:00the last one which is 2008 Mike Ross

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

20:07well that’s another success now I’m going to jump off a cliff I’ve got no

20:14idea what color I’m going to get but let’s try exactly the same test let’s

20:21double the the false density so here’s my next test we’re going to use exactly

20:27the same speeds with a hundred percent power the same which gave us golds

20:33everything here remains the same the only thing is we’re going to have the pitch between the lines for each one of

20:41these now whatever color that one comes out I would expect that that and that to

20:47match that’s if we were onto something interesting here now on the basis of our

20:54a3 test which is what we did at some stage it’s hinting towards maybe somewhere

21:05down here in the bluey emerald green region pale blue pale green we left the

21:16wait-and-see silver for the hint of mmm silver with a hint of bluey green in

21:24it let’s try the 651 well all I can say

21:29is there’s another matching one silver ish with a hint of possible hint of

21:35cream now we’ve got a pale blue a

21:40sparkly pale blue well that’s a perfect match it’s a very nice pale blue now

21:51just as I’ve gone to change those settings I’ve realized I made a slight mistake last time and this one should

21:57have been 5 microns and that is 5 microns so there’s a very slight color

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

22:03difference in the blue when I went to 5 microns as opposed to 4 microns so 4 & 5

22:09microns beside each other there

22:23you know they’re very nice golds perhaps I ought to sit down and work out what the what the pixel density is in these

22:31and see if we can replicate these because these are very nice golds the

22:37others are fairly weak in comparison you can see when I even as I move those

22:44around in the light they really don’t change a great deal all the others have gone dark but those are actually showing

22:50their true colors and that’s because they’ve got a disrupted surface finish

22:55they’re reflecting all over the place

23:02particularly these last two here which the 1600 and 2000 at two and two and a

23:09half microns so I’ve chosen a range of

23:14pictures here from threat from 2.5 up to

23:2012 microns and I’ve calculated the appropriate speed which will generate a

23:28hundred thousand pulses per square millimeter so the three four and five

23:33micron tests come out more or less the same as the standard two and a half that

23:39we started off with which is that one so we’ve done the same test again but we’ll

23:44use the copper this time and see whether or not the copper gold in this last row

23:50replicates reasonably well as well or whether it can extend down further than

23:55this as I said these are all gold but some of them are fairly weak and pathetic and they’ve got a shiny surface

24:01on them which means that they can only be viewed in one direction so we’re

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

24:09definitely after these speckled colors because these are the colors that are going to if you like survive in almost

24:16any light so we’ve now chosen the coppery gold and matched up the speeds so that they come

24:24out two hundred fifty six thousand five hundred pulses per square millimeter and we run ten more results off and see what

24:31we get now these first three at one point six two and three microns are all very very

24:39good now all that lovely coppery gold color now these others are also pretty good

24:47coppery gold you see they run all the way down as a gold and in fact they are

24:53a slightly coppery gold more coppery gold than the ones beside it so and

24:58clearly see on here those that enjoy playing with the light and those that

25:04are not very happy with it but I think the case is now proved that there is a

25:10whole range of speeds and pictures which

25:15provided you set the other parameters correct you can vary quite a lot if you

25:21stick to a certain rule and the rule is polish density per square millimeter now

25:27although we found all sorts of Gold’s on there and I’ve been very successful with my gold mining today we can see the ones

25:35that are obviously standing out these are the speckled ones so they’re

25:41slightly deeper and they tend to be the finer pitch ones that you can see in

25:47this light which is great because it means they’re no longer particularly

25:53sensitive to light direction they pick up the light from all directions and that really is what my total aim will be

26:00to try and produce a palette of colors that are virtually impervious to the

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

26:06direction of the light didn’t have a look through two or three of the samples under the microscope just to show you

26:12those textures that are created by the different parameters all these samples that I’m going to show you had done with

26:17hundred percent power this first one is six microns pitch six hundred and fifty

26:24millimeters a second I think you could probably guess from that forney look that it may well be a gold you can only

26:31see that it’s gold in one direction in another direction when you can turn the light across it it’s it’s black you

26:37wouldn’t know that from looking at that because that looks as though it’s a pretty good gold let’s take a look at it in high magnification well I can tell

26:44you that that surface there is basically high disturbing the surface of the material

26:50we’ve got all these marks here which are the like the oxidization marks that

26:58you’ve seen on my flat metal sample we’re not actually burrowing into the or disturbing the surface of the material

27:03very much maybe just in one or two places where the power is high in the center of the beam we might just be

27:11breaking through the oxide film so it’s not a uniform film that we’re seeing it’s an effect a color effect from a

27:19variable a continuously variable film now this was done at three times the

27:24speed almost 1600 and but this is done with a two micron step there’s some

27:31definite sand yellowy cream in there that is virtually the same color as the

27:38one next to it except that this one is glittery let’s see what the what’s

27:44caused the glitter when we look at the high magnification what we’ve got there are blobs and pits the green pieces

27:53which I’m bringing into focus now and look particularly at something like this one up here which has got particularly

28:00I’ve got a lot of depth because you could see that from the way I’m bringing the colors in those color bands can you

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

28:06see all those color bands just around there I mean they are variable degrees

28:12of oxide thickness within a pit and then

28:19if I change the focus and bring it up to the surface put all these lovely heat

28:27patterns these colors that we’ve seen on my oxide film look the Blues the Browns

28:35the yellows which are in the background I mean it’s a right mixture of color

28:43here at the surface does it look as though it’s going to come out gold now

28:50there’s a predominance of yellowy stuff there I suppose that’s definitely surface disruption and that has

28:56caused a sparkly color now here’s another sparkly one more or less the

29:02same color I would say that on the surface of it this looks as though it might be a lighter color this was two

29:08and a half micron interval with a two thousand millimeter but second speed not

29:14a huge difference for the previous one so we haven’t got very much yellow in this one we’ve got our large changes in

29:22depth we’ve got probably three or four microns there I suspect if I was to

29:27measure it we’ve got this sort of pale yellow which looks as though it’s on the surface and then we’ve got these pixie

29:34which look as though they’re buried into the surface we’ve got a few bits of this orange and red but we saw on the

29:42previous one but at this high magnification the colors are nothing

29:48like the previous one and yet stand of side by side and they look virtually the

29:54same to the naked eye this again to the naked eye it’s not quite a sparkly gold

30:01and it’s not a flat gold but then again the parameters for this are totally

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

30:06different than those that we’ve just seen now I’m going to move it up you can see the line across the top there which

30:12is the line that created this pattern but this unlike the others has done slow

30:19at 800 millimeters a second with a huge pitch of 20 microns and 100% power the

30:29same as the others now you’d ask yourself the question why isn’t that a

30:35blue because there’s a greater predominance of blue in that pattern then there is gold nope it comes out to

30:44the naked eye as a slightly non flat gold it’s not polished gold again it

30:53does lose its color when you turn it away in certain types of light well I

31:00could spend hours looking at this stuff because it’s absolutely fascinating well it’s very difficult to catch my test

31:06plate in the right light to show you all the possible is that happening I mean these are all

31:12most of these are golds as it happens these came out quite well you can see that they’re all gold up here they look

31:18white but in fact these are nice sparkly golds but what you can see on these

31:24pictures is that these are sparkly and the ones that we’ve just looked at on the screen in high magnification this

31:31one here which is a flat gold this one here which is a sparkly gold and this one here which is a semi sparkly gold so

31:38you’ve got this fairly crude image as a reference starting point and then what

31:44I’ve done I’ve taken images of each one of my tests this one is a one at

31:5250-times magnification this one’s a one at 400 times magnification so you’ve got

31:58low and high resolution for each one of those test squares okay

Transcript for Fiber Laser Engraving Metal – Various Achievable Colours (Cont…)

32:04you’ve actually got the test square picture here and beside that what we’ve

32:10got is a record in the form of a spreadsheet with all the parameters and

32:17two quick thumbnails of 50 times and 400 times between each result so if you

32:25really are interested in seeing these images in high resolution then I’m happy

32:30to send them to you what you need to do is to add your email address a disguised

32:35email address write it out in words john dot smith at yahoo.com all is one great

32:45big long string i will send you a link to my dropbox where you’ll be able to download all these onto your own pc and

32:52study them if you wish to now these these pictures good as they are they

32:58still are only probably about 80% of the quality that I can see directly into the

33:05microscope the microscope gives a much clearer image of what’s going on but these are very good representations and

33:12will give you a feel there is no depth all I can do is find an optimum focus

33:18when I take the picture so I think we’ll conclude at that point and

33:23next time we might go searching for some different colors now we’ve got a little bit of an understanding of how it all

33:29works thank you very much for your time and I’ll catch you in the next session

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  • makeCNC who provide Downloadable Patterns, Software, Hardware and other content for Laser Cutters, CNC Routers, Plasma, WaterJets, CNC Milling Machines, and other Robotic Tools. They also provide Pattern Files in PDF format for Scroll Saw Users. They are known for their Friendly and Efficient Customer Service and have a comprehensive back catalogue as well as continually providing New Patterns and Content.
  • Cloudray Laser: a world-leading laser parts and solutions provider, has established a whole series of laser product lines, range from CO2 engraving & cutting machine parts, fiber cutting machine parts and laser marking machine parts.
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