21 – Air Assist or NOT (29:00)

The Lightblade Learning Lab with Russ Sadler

The Lightblade Learning Lab is a series of videos that Russ did for Thinklaser Limited based on using the Lightblade 4060 Laser Cutting and Engraving Machine. Thinklasers Lightblade 4060 has a 400 x 600mm bed size and was supplied with a 60W EFR laser tube. In this Session, Russ explains the importance of Laser air assist in both laser cutting and engraving. He also explains why laser air assist is vital in protecting the lens.

Laser Engraving showing the importance of laser air assist
Laser Engraving showing the importance of laser air assist

Contents

  • (Particularly with respect to engraving, some experiments that you should not do!)
  • The ‘Wall of Wind’ fan array
  • Engraving and cutting some cheap hardboard
  • Brown ‘haze’ from the condensed residue of the smoke on the engraving
  • Cleaning off residue with White Vinegar (gentle) or Acetone (aggressive)
  • Benefits of using a steel plate as a base over the honeycomb
  • The extraction of the air and the hazardous effects of the fumes
  • Trying the same work on the honeycomb table with normal air extraction
  • Placing the hardboard on standoffs and repeating the experiment
  • Turning the air assist off and repeating the experiment – creates a flame but leaves the engraving whiter and the edge cleaner because the residue has been burnt off
  • Using masking tape to shield the surface of the material
  • Trying the task at the front of the machine versus the back (little difference)
  • Using a very small amount of air assist – gives a good finish
  • Trying the ‘Wall of Wind’ with the honeycomb table to create a high speed flow of air to keep the flame down (partially successful)
  • Trying the sheet steel table and a gap in the lid to get better airflow
  • Experimenting with a different head design – description of modification
  • Lessons (for organic materials):
    • You need full air assist when doing cutting otherwise you will get ‘comet trails’ of flame.
    • Zero air assist for engraving is best (Editor’s Note: you actually need a little airflow to keep the lens clean and Russ is allowing the tiny amount that leaks past the valve to do this.)
  • How do we have air assist off for engraving on a job and off for the cutting? See the next video.

My thanks go out to Tom at Thinklaser for giving permission to embed these videos on this site. If you are looking for a new laser machine from a quality supplier, then I would suggest you check out their website: www.thinklaser.com.

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Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not

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00:15

Welcome to another Lightblade learning Lab.

00:19

Today, we’re going to carry on a bit with Parameters, but we’re actually not going to

00:27

do any parameters today.

00:29

We’re going to look at some problems that we shall have as we tackle some more parameters.

00:36

Particularly associated with engraving.

00:38

Now we have already touched on some of these little problems in the last session on cutting

00:43

parameters.

00:44

But I didn’t enlarge on them too much at that point in time because there is a great deal

00:49

that I don’t know about engraving.

00:54

And so what we are going to do today is some exploratory work, that is new to me and probably

01:01

new for most people because I’ve not found anybody else doing this sort of work.

01:06

It’s a bit; when I say controversial… it can’t be controversial because we shall either

01:12

decide that it does, or that it doesn’t work.

01:14

The controversial element of it will be the fact is that we’re probably going to do quite

01:18

a lot of work with no air assist.

01:21

(draws in breath) Ooh well we touched on this last time, and

01:26

err we got some quite staggering results.

01:31

Hopefully we shall find similar sorts of things today.

01:34

I indicated to you right at the beginning of this series that I’m not a tutor, I’m not

01:38

a teacher, I’m an engineer who enjoys discovering things and as I discover things, you will

01:45

learn.

01:46

Um, and hopefully these sorts of things will help you understand more about the machine

01:52

and the way in which you can look at things in a slightly obtuse way, to try and get solutions

01:58

to problems, because I suspect that most of you guys will be using this machine for real

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

02:03

jobs and real work – earning money.

02:05

And you will want to be most efficient that you can be at the job job that you’re going

02:10

to do, and some of this knowledge and background information will help you make decisions to

02:16

improve your manufacturing process.

02:19

Before we dive in, a couple of things, first of all – ooh that’s nice and warm now, that’s

02:25

my cinnamon roll mmm that’s absolutely delicious.

02:28

It’s quite cold out here today, now I want to just draw your attention to this little

02:37

thing that I’m holding here.

02:40

I’m not likely to lose it as you can see.

02:43

It’s a keep things warm or a keep things cold cup.

02:47

And it’s got my normal black coffee in it, but the interesting thing about it is, this

02:55

is stainless steel, and it’s been powder coated and the powder coating has been removed by

03:02

a machine just like this.

03:06

So you’re dealing with something here, with this machine, which is capable of all sorts

03:13

of good things.

03:14

Now something else I would like you to look at, this is what I call my wall of wind.And

03:20

I hope, that we will be using this with some success today.

03:29

It may be a total failure, I’ve only just recently made it, so I’ve not even had a chance

03:35

to test it.

03:36

It works, I’ve got it on a variable voltage transformer so I can change the amount of

03:41

blow in it by 50 %. Ok now, to start this session off what I’ve got, is I’ve got the

03:49

steel plate on here, um for a good reason as you’ll see in a second.

03:54

I’ve got the 2″ lens in here, so I’ll just set that to 5mm gap and I’m going to run

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

04:01

a very simple program.

04:13

The first part of this exercise is some engraving, some scanning.

04:22

Followed by some cutting.

04:36

Now this is a very cheap hardboard, very soft, this is not MDF, this is nothing like that

04:43

laser board that we used in the last session.

04:46

So, what have we got here?

04:49

Well, yes it’s cut.

04:52

But two things I want you to note: first of all, this is a right mess…..

05:00

I mean it’s full of dust, we can take some of the dust off, but we’ve still got all this

05:11

brown haze around the outside.

05:15

Now what is that brown haze?

05:16

Where did it come from?

05:18

Well the answer is pretty simple actually, see this much here?

05:24

Well this muck here is sticky,

05:33

It’s basically condensed residue of the smoke that was generated when this was burned.

05:40

If you take a look at the cut around the edge, the cut is pretty clean.

05:45

That’s because all the smoke and residue, went downwards and condensed here.

05:52

But when we were doing engraving on the surface here, where did the smoke go?

05:59

– UP

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

06:00

and then immediately down again because the air assist was forcing it back onto the surface.

06:05

So, hence the reason we’ve got all this brown muck here sitting around the outside of what

06:13

should be a nice clean engraving.

06:16

How are we going to deal with this problem?

06:20

Well, to be honest, I can’t answer that question at the moment because I’m certainly no engraving

06:26

expert, and that’s the whole point of today’s session.

06:29

We’re gonna see how we can change from this, I was going to be a bit crude with my language,

06:36

but I’m going to say with this “not very good” attempt.

06:40

To something that hopefully gets better.

06:43

Now we’ll carry on at the moment, using this fairly cheap um fibre board, this hardboard,

06:52

because we’ve got some references.

06:53

Before we put this away, which I’m going to get rid of this now, lets just remove this

06:59

horrible debris off of here with some white vinegar.

07:03

Oh dear, white vinegar usually does the trick.

07:09

But if it fails, I’m afraid we’re going to have to go for something a little more aggressive.

07:16

This is acetone.

07:18

Again, just a tip more than anything else, A steel plate, and it doesn’t have to be a

07:23

plate like I’ve got here, it could just be a flat steel plate.

07:27

It can be very useful to you, because first of all, as you can see it’s very easy to clean.

07:32

I mention about the steel plate being easy to clean, because as you can see, after a

07:37

little while all this brown crud, we’ve collected on that plate, is going onto this surface

07:45

here, and this is a lot more difficult to keep clean.

07:49

And what happens is this stuff here, will burn when you run the laser beam across it,

07:57

and it will produce fumes.

07:58

Which will come back onto the back of your job.

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

08:00

So this is actually, in some ways it’s great, and in some ways it’s nothing but a pain.

08:07

It has it’s uses and one of the great uses for it is that it has got a lot of air flow

08:13

through it.

08:14

Now if we leave the machine here, we’ve just got a great big cupboard cavity and that’s

08:20

where this fits in to.

08:22

You can see the pattern of the grill underneath there and look you can see my hands shadow.

08:30

Now in here we’ve got a big extract tube that’s sucking the air out from underneath this area

08:38

here, so this is like a big Plenum chamber underneath here and it sucks all the air down

08:44

into it and extracts it into this amazing Purex unit.

08:48

NOw I’ve always been used to throwing my waste products down a duct and to the outside world.

08:56

But of course I’m also throwing heat away, if there was any heat in this cold workshop.

09:02

Um, whereas this is a recirculating system, not only is it a recirculating system it gives

09:08

me environmental protection because not only is it filtering out smoke, it’s filtering

09:15

out through an active charcoal filter all the poisonous fumes that are in the atmosphere.

09:21

So I can do some plastic cutting on this machine that I wouldn’t normally recommend you do,

09:28

but with a certain amount of caution and care, and I would probably ask you to go back to

09:33

thinklaser or to Purex and ask their advice about the product that you are going to cut.

09:39

You can have products that are dangerous to your health, but not dangerous to the machine.

09:45

And there are other hazardous products that are hazardous to you and to the bare metal

09:51

work and electronics in this machine.

09:54

So, you need to be careful we talked about hazardous materials in a previous session.

09:58

Now I’m just going to mention it again, because it’s a very important subject that you mustn’t

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

10:03

overlook.

10:04

Back to this honeycomb table, same material, same program, let’s take a look at what happens

10:13

this time.

10:15

Now because I’ve changed the table we shall need to reset the focus and I can do that

10:21

either with the Z/U button or in this particular instance I’m just going to let it drop onto

10:33

my step gauge.

10:37

Like that, that’s a nice simple way of doing it.

10:51

Now if you remember what we learned last time, this edge looks pretty black and also look…..

10:57

It’s got a lot of soot on it, now that would indicate to me that we could go faster.

11:03

Now I’m standing them up side by side so that you can take a look at them and you’ll see

11:09

that the one that was done on the flat table is in fact cleaner than the one that’s done

11:17

on the honeycomb Table.

11:18

Strange that isn’t it?

11:20

And the back looks nice and clean again, although I could make this run faster as we said, I’m

11:27

not going to, we’ll keep all the parameters the same.

11:30

The only thing that we are going to do is change the way in which we feed air to and

11:37

from this product.

11:39

So this is all about how air can affect the quality of your product, and air flow can

11:45

affect the quality of your product.

11:48

OK so now we’ve got the job sitting on stand-offs, so that there is an air gap underneath the

11:56

product as well.

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

12:00

Now I’ve got the lid open at the moment, which is something that you won’t have, you’ll be

12:07

running this with the lid down.

12:16

How does this one compare?

12:20

Well I would say that probably, on balance, it’s not quite as mucky, there isn’t quite

12:29

as much haze there if you notice, but I can take it off just as I did on the first one,

12:39

and to be honest, there isn’t a great deal of difference between these two.

12:47

This one is a lot whiter, these are both darker.

12:52

Now the next variable that we are going to introduce is this….. we’re going to turn

12:59

the air assist off completely, now we’re in for some fun.

13:09

Oh dear…. that’s lovely isn’t it.

13:18

Now what is that flame coming out of the back there do you reckon?

13:24

What do you think to that one?

13:30

Let’s put in down against our first one, which is the best we’ve had so far.

13:36

Hopefully I’m making a point here, the importance of air assist or no air assist.

13:45

The debris that’s coming up with this one is not being blown back down onto the job,

13:54

it’s being allowed to come up and blown away by the air that’s moving past here.

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

14:02

Even though it’s not necessarily the best air flow that we can possibly get, it’s a

14:06

gentle airflow.

14:07

The interesting question is, look at the edge, you might be able to see how this has got

14:14

a shiny edge around here where the debris has settled onto the surface and it’s produced

14:23

this… .although it’s not, it is a little bit brown around here, it’s not terrible,

14:28

but when you turn it into the light, you can see the silvery edge that’s around here, the

14:34

shiny edge where the resin has settled back down again.

14:39

Now when you look at this one, there’s nothing.

14:44

Why is there nothing?

14:46

Well the answer is….. we burnt it, you saw it burning.

14:55

If it’s burnt it doesn’t settle back onto the job, so in some ways burning it is even

15:04

better than trying to blow it away gently.

15:07

This is a burning process, it is converting a piece of wood into gas and gas is a lot

15:12

more volumetric than the wood and so consequently it’s expanding up and producing all this debris

15:19

which is in the air.

15:21

And that’s the fundamental problem that we’ve got with engraving of any organic material.

15:27

We’re going to produce this smoke, and that’s what we’ve got to try deal with.

15:31

Now there are several ways that we can deal with it, one of them is to put masking over

15:34

the top of that, which would be fine for something like this and let me just demonstrate, and

15:43

I’m not going to do the cut, I’m just going to do the engraving to demonstrate the point.

15:46

Now I’m going to turn the air assist back on because you know what happens when we put

15:50

air assist on, we get all this muck on the surface.

15:55

So lets go back to muck on the surface mode.

15:59

I’m going to cut that in half like that, and peel off this piece here.

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

16:18

So we’ve got a nice clean product.

16:21

Well, I say clean, but you’ll notice that this is dark and this is light, because even

16:29

though we’ve got a nice clean edge around here, we still finished up painting the text

16:36

with all our rubbish.

16:39

So we didn’t get clean text, we got resin coated text.

16:44

Which in some instances might look quite good.

16:47

Ok so we’ve basically discovered that we do not want the debris to be blown down and the

16:53

best thing that we can do is to have the air assist off.

16:56

But if we have the air assist off and we’ve got a composite job, cutting and engraving,

17:02

I mean this is easy to do for engraving because all we have to do is turn the air assist off.

17:07

Ok so now I’m going to carry out a test and we’ll stop it after the engraving.

17:11

You will notice how the smoke has been thrown in the air and is getting carried away.

17:18

That is exactly what we want, we don’t want it to go back down onto the job.

17:24

Now I am going to turn this around, so that we can see the difference, if there is a difference

17:32

between working at the front of the machine and working at the back of the machine.

17:37

To be honest, it doesn’t really look very much different.

17:44

Which is good news, because all we need is a waft of air across it.

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

18:07

Now just look how beautifully clean that is.

18:08

And that’s no air assist, if you remember last time, when I say no air assist, you can

18:14

hopefully see that there is a small amount of air leakage across the valve, which is

18:20

actually just keeping the lens protected.

18:26

But it’s not enough flow to interfere with what’s going on with the air flow down here.

18:35

Now we’re back with our piece of trial material, and what we are going to do now is to see

18:40

if we can get a compromise whereby we get a nice clean engraving but also a fairly good

18:51

cut.

18:52

Now we’ve already had that situation once, which was basically this one here which was

19:00

no air assist, it was on this honeycomb and it was on stand-off.

19:05

So, we’ve already got this test in the bag.

19:12

So we don’t need to do that again, we need something different.

19:13

Now i’m going to lift this probe, right up out of the way, so that it’s not in the line

19:24

of fire, if we get fire, because we’ve already got some sticky residue on here from the comet

19:34

trail.

19:35

Now this is where I want to play with my experimental “Wall of Wind” I want to see if I can introduce

19:43

quite a high speed cross flow that will keep the flame extinguished and blow the debris

19:52

away, I’ve put the voltage on this up to full volts “24 volts” and if we take a look, as

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

20:00

you’ll see, we’ve got a fair old wind blowing across there, so if you’re going to blow anything

20:06

away, this is how we’re going to do it.

20:10

So what we’re attempting to do here, those flames are caused by residues that are lifted

20:17

out of this material and they are flammable residues that are being, they are being ignited

20:24

by the laser beam itself, because we’ve got a very high power laser beam on there at the

20:28

moment.

20:29

And what the attempt will be to do here is to dilute those fumes to such an extent that

20:34

they do not ignite.

20:35

And nothing there, and well I think we’re getting a much smaller flame trail.

20:58

And in fact it’s a very clean … we can go faster, but that’s a secondary issue.

21:14

Ok well that was fairly successful, um the flame trail was very much reduced, but what

21:25

I’m doing at the moment is forcing the air across the surface.

21:29

Now maybe I can achieve the same result by blocking off the honeycomb table, because

21:35

at the moment the honeycomb table is compromising our flow.

21:40

We’ve got the cover going down, which is the way that you would have to operate this machine,

21:45

and so now if you remember, I’ve got a 1/2″ air gap underneath the front of this machine

21:52

here.

21:53

I’ve put some fairly thick rubber feet under the end here, so I’ve got a nice air gap under

21:58

here, which is blowing in and allowing a large amount of air, relatively speaking to flow

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

22:04

in and blow across the job.

22:06

At the back of the machine, you can see these holes, this is where the only air is going

22:13

down into the table beneath.

22:15

There is a small amount of leakage around the edge of the table here , but most of the

22:20

air is being drawn in and across the machine and going down through those holes at the

22:25

back there.

22:26

So what we’ve done, we’ve introduced basically a cross flow of air, both beneath and above

22:32

the work.

22:33

Lets see what the results are like compared to my “Wall of Wind”?

22:37

Basically a very large comet tail.

22:39

Now the end result compares well with our “Wall of Wind”.

22:51

Here are our 3 no air assist samples, we’ve got the one with the big comet tail, and maybe

23:00

it is sort of um, Just very slightly hazy in this area.

23:08

This one is perfectly clean, this had big comet tails on it as well.

23:13

This was the wall of wind, and that looks quite nice, but no significant difference

23:19

between that and this.

23:23

Except the flame, now as I said to you, you Shouldn’t really be worried about the flame,

23:29

providing you are with the machine and there is nothing around here which is going to suffer

23:35

from being heated, then that trail of flame is actually doing the best thing it possibly

23:41

can do, which is burn up all the debris.

23:44

So it never settles back on your job, now I did say that this was going to be slightly

23:51

controversial and I’m sure Thinklaser wouldn’t want you to run your machine with a comet

23:58

tail.

23:59

So we’re going to have to find another way of doing it.

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

24:04

Well I did say what we’re going to do next, you will not be allowed to do half of the

24:09

things I’m able to do, so I’ve just had a bit of a think and a bit of a brain wave,

24:17

and I’m wondering whether an adaption that I’ve made to the head will actually work.

24:24

So I’ve turned the air assist back on, but as you can see the air assist is not exactly

24:30

going where it went originally.

24:34

Let’s press the button and see what happens….

24:38

Well so far, so good.

24:50

Well we still have a flame, but of course now it’s not doing any damage.

25:03

Ok so that was a bit of a failure wasn’t it, um, the results were quite good, but then

25:12

again as we’ve seen before anything with a fiery tail produces quite good results.

25:19

Um not necessarily good for the machine as I said.

25:22

It will certainly be frowned upon by everybody, including Thinklaser.

25:26

You see, what was the thinking behind what I was trying to do.

25:30

Well it was a small shroud that i put around the nozzle and on one side of the shroud I

25:36

drilled a big hole like that, and on the other side of the shroud I put in a tube, like this,

25:47

for my air assist and the idea was that the air assist was going to go out here and as

25:55

it went out here with a sort of a Venturi effect it was going to draw air out from the

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

26:02

inside and hopefully produce a swirling effect as it did so.

26:08

In other words, I was producing a sort of a Whirlwind inside that enclosure, the attempt

26:14

was to try and draw air up and in, and produce a negative pressure inside there to pull the

26:22

fumes up and throw them out the side.

26:25

Rather than try and eject them up through like a vacuum tube or a vacuum cleaner that

26:30

would need an external source I had hoped to use the positive pressure of this air assist

26:36

to produce a sort of vacuum.

26:39

Well, thinking about it, it’s got to be a hell of a vacuum, a hell of a suck to take

26:44

away the fumes and prevent burning.

26:47

Maybe upon reflection, not my brightest idea today.

26:51

Now apart from a little bit of collateral damage here, which a little bit of acetone

26:58

will very quickly cure, um no parts of this machine were harmed in the making of this

27:03

video.

27:05

Now as they say on kids programs, “Please don’t do this at home” and in a strange sort

27:10

of way, I’ve got to say the same sort of thing.

27:12

I’ve mentioned it before, I can do things with this machine that you will not be allowed

27:17

to do because you won’t be able to get into this machine to use it in the way that I am.

27:22

And I wouldn’t want you to do some of the things that I am doing today.

27:26

I’m doing them so that you don’t have to, if you’ve got an inquisitive mind then hopefully

27:31

I’m there before you and I will take away the need for you to do some of the things

27:36

I’ve done today.

27:38

But the fundamental lesson is, that we need full air assist when we’re doing cutting,

27:46

otherwise we shall get comet trails and fire extinguishers at the ready.

27:54

We need zero air assist for clean engraving, now that is totally contrary to most advice

Transcript of Laser Air Assist or Not (Cont…)

28:01

that you will get and you certainly won’t find anything about this information when

28:06

it comes to parameters.

28:09

So I’ve dealt with this as a separate issue outside the parameters because I don’t really

28:14

want to go back and explain why I’m using zero air assist when we talk about engraving

28:19

parameters.

28:20

It’s a big enough subject all on it’s own as you’ve seen.

28:23

Now I must hastily add quickly this applies to organic materials, acrylic is a special

28:34

subject all on it’s own and it deserves a full session talking about cutting and maybe

28:41

a full session talking about engraving acrylic because it is a very very interesting material.

28:48

Thank you very much for your time and attention today and I hope you’ve enjoyed some of the

28:54

fireworks.

28:55

Fire extinguishers away now, and relax.

28:58

See you next time.

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The Site may contain (or you may be sent through the Site) links to other websites or content belonging to or originating from third parties or links to websites and features in banners or other advertising. Such external links are not investigated, monitored, or checked for accuracy, adequacy, validity, reliability, availability or completeness by us.

WE DO NOT WARRANT, ENDORSE, GUARANTEE, OR ASSUME RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ACCURACY OR RELIABILITY OF ANY INFORMATION OFFERED BY THIRD-PARTY WEBSITES LINKED THROUGH THE SITE OR ANY WEBSITE OR FEATURE LINKED IN ANY BANNER OR OTHER ADVERTISING.
WE WILL NOT BE A PARTY TO OR IN ANY WAY BE RESPONSIBLE FOR MONITORING ANY TRANSACTION BETWEEN YOU AND THIRD-PARTY PROVIDERS OF PRODUCTS OR SERVICES.


AFFILIATES DISCLAIMER

The Site may contain links to affiliate websites, and we receive an affiliate commission for any purchases made by you on the affiliate website using such links. Our affiliates include the following:

  • makeCNC who provide Downloadable Patterns, Software, Hardware and other content for Laser Cutters, CNC Routers, Plasma, WaterJets, CNC Milling Machines, and other Robotic Tools. They also provide Pattern Files in PDF format for Scroll Saw Users. They are known for their Friendly and Efficient Customer Service and have a comprehensive back catalogue as well as continually providing New Patterns and Content.
  • Cloudray Laser: a world-leading laser parts and solutions provider, has established a whole series of laser product lines, range from CO2 engraving & cutting machine parts, fiber cutting machine parts and laser marking machine parts.
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